100 Questions Pertaining to Fasting
Shaykh Abu Abdir-Rahman Abdullaah Al-Iryanee
(May Allah Preserve Him)
Abu Abdillaah Abdur-Rahman Al-Pakistanee (may allah forgive him)
Question 1 : What is the definition of Siyaam (Fasting) ?
Answer: "Fasting in the legislation is: a specific restraining , in a specified time, from a specific person, with specific Conditions" ((Sharh Muslim)) ((Fath Al Baaree))
(Specific Restraining) : that is: the avoidance of every nullifier and everything that invalidates the fast that has been specified in the legislation, like eating and drinking, intercourse, and other than it such as injections.
(In a specified time) : that is: which is specified in the legislation. It is from the rising of the second fajr until the sun goes down.
(From a specific person) : that is: from a Muslim, who is sane , who is Baaligh (one whom reached the age of puberty), who is able, who is a resident, and not the one who is menstruating or has post-natal bleeding. So it is not obligatory to perform it with the existence of a legislative excuse, rather he must make it up after the removal of this excuse.
Question 2: When was the Fasting in the month of Ramadan made Obligatory?
Answer : Fasting in Ramadan was made obligatory in the second year of the Hijrah An-Nabawiyyah, And it was said in month of Sha’baan. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم fasted for nine Ramadans . ((Al-Majmu’)) by An-Nawawee ((Zaad Al-Ma’aad)) , ((Subul As-Salaam)) .
Question 3 : What is the evidence for the obligation of fasting the month of Ramadan?
Answer: The evidences for this : the Book, the Sunnah, and consensus (Ijma').
Allah: O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqun [2:183]
And He said: So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month [2:185]
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said : “Islam is built on five (pillars): Testimony that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, establishing Salah, giving Zakah, Hajj, and fasting Ramadan” Agreed upon on the authority of Abdullah ibn Umar رضي الله عنه . In the two Saheehs from the hadeeth of Tahlah bin Ubaydullah رضي الله عنه that a Bedouin came and asked the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم about the obligations of Allah upon him. So he asked: "Inform me what Allah has made compulsory for me as regards fasting." He صلى الله عليه وسلم replied, "You have to fast during the whole month of Ramadan, unless you want to fast more as Nawafil"
A consensus was recorded for that from a group of the People of Knowledge, from them is Imaam An-Nawawee in his book ((Al-Majmu’)
Question 4: Does Allah accept the fast of one who boycotts the prayer ?
Answer: The People of Knowledge said that Allah will not accept the fast of the one who boycotts the prayer because Allah, the Exalted says: Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqun [5:27] The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم has indeed said ‘The covenant that distinguishes between us and them is prayer; so whoever leaves it, he has committed Kufr.’ Reported by Ahmed and the four [Sunan] , on the authority of Buraydah and he said: between a person and between kufr is the abandoning of the salah" reported by the Jamaa’ah except Al-Bukharee , on the authority of Jaabir رضي الله عنه . ((Fiqh Al-Ibaadaat)) ((Ijabah As-Saa’il ala Ahamm Masaail))
Question 5 : When is it obligatory for one to fast the month of Ramadan?
Answer:- It is obligatory by the affirmation of the sighting of the crescent moon of Ramadan,or by completing the month of Sha’baan with 30 days due his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying ‘When you see the new moon, observe fast, and when you see it (again) then break it, and if the sky is cloudy for you, then calculate it.’ and in another narration: Fast when you see it, and break your fast when you see it, and if the weather is cloudy calculate it (the months of Sha'ban and Shawwal) as thirty days.’ Agreed upon on the authority of Abdullah bin Umar رضي الله عنه and a narration like it on the authority of Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه .
And the meaning of the hadeeth is : Do not fast Ramadan until you see its new moon,and do not end Ramadan until you see the new moon of the month of Shawwaal. If it is too cloudy for you [to see] the new moon of Ramadan, then complete Sha’ban as 30 days .And if it is too cloudy for you [to see] the new moon of Shawwaal then complete the period of Ramdan as 30 days. ((Sharh Muslim))
Question 6 : What is obligatory upon us if we are prevented from sighting the new moon due to clouds?
Answer: It is obligatory upon us [when that occurs] to complete the month of Sha’baaan as 30 days ;due to the Ahaadeeth previously mentioned .
Question 7 : What is the ruling on fasting the day of doubt?
Answer : It is not permissible to fast it due to the statement of Ammar bin Yaasir رضي الله عنه : 'Whoever fasts on a day in which there is doubt, then he has disobeyed Abul-Qaasim meaning the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ". Reported by the Four [books of Sunnan] with a connected chain and Al-Bukhaaree as a Mu'allaq [suspended] narration.
See ((Sharh Muslim)) , ((Al-Muhlaa)) by Ibn Hazm and ((Naylul Awtaar)) by Ash-Shawkaanee .
Question 8 - What is the ruling of preceding Ramadan by fasting a day or two with a voluntary fast that is outside a person's usual habit ?
Answer: It is not permissible due to the statement of the Prophet ﷺ : "Do not precede the month of Ramadan by fasting a day or two before it, unless it is the case of a man who normally performs some fast, then let him fast it." Agreed upon on the authority of Abu Hurayrah . And indeed Imam an-Nawawee said that in ((Sharh Muslim)) , And As-San’aanee in ((Subul As-Salaam)) .
Question 9: Does this include a prohibition for one whose regular habit is to fast voluntarily ,so his habit coincides with a day or two before Ramadan?
Answer: It is not included because the Prophet ﷺ has indeed exempted such a person. He said: "unless it is the case of a man who normally performs some fast, then let him fast it’"
Question 10 : Does this prohibition include one who is making up a fast ?
Answer : It does not include it , because making up a fast (Qadaa) is obligatory.
Question 11 : Does this prohibition include one who fasts due to an oath ?
Answer : It does not include it because fulfilling an oath is obligatory.
A group of the People of knowledge took the opinion that the three aforementioned issues do are not included in the prohibition. From them is Ibn Daqeeq Al-Ee’id in his book ((Ihkaamul Ihkaam fee sharh umdatul ahkaam )) ,and likewise Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar in his book ((Fathul Baaree))
Question 12 : Is it required in the sighting of the new moon of Ramadan that it is from all of the people ?
Answer: That is not required by consensus. Rather the meaning of the hadeeth is that the legislative ruling is established by the report of one, trustworthy person,or two with a difference of opinion [regarding that]. ((Subul As-Salaam)).
Transalated by Abu 'Abdillaah Abdur-Rahman Al-Pakistanee